This third edition of Ira M. Lapidus's classic A History of Islamic Societies has been substantially revised to incorporate the insights of new scholarship and updated to include historical developments in the first decade of the twenty-first century. Lapidus's history explores the beginnings and transformations of Islamic civilizations in the Middle East and details Islam's worldwide diffusion to Africa; Spain; Turkey and the Balkans; Central, South, and Southeast Asia; and North America, situating Islamic societies within their global, political, and economic contexts. The narrative is unified by its focus on the organization of primary communities, religious groups and states, and the institutions and cultures that define them. Organized in narrative sections corresponding to the history of each major region, with innovative, analytic summary introductions and conclusions, this book is a unique endeavor. The informative and substantial update, balanced judgement, and clarity of presentation ensure that it will remain a classic in the field.