A case-study in modelling the social make-up of an early Christian community, including estimated figures for the various social groups in the model. A case-study in how such modelling can make an impact on the exegesis of a text. The result is a proposal for reading Philippians as a call for unity under economic suffering. In particular, the story of Christ in Philippians 2.6–11 is read as a reinforcement of this call in the specifically Roman context of Philippi. The book begins with a discussion of archaeological and literary evidence about the development of the Roman colony of Philippi. It also includes discussion of the likely effects of suffering among various social groups in the church, exploration of Paul's and Christ's roles as models for the Philippians, and comparison of Paul's language about Christ with Imperial ideology.