This 2006 book acknowledges the importance of identifying the most crucial science to be performed aby the superb Hubble Telescope. With this goal in mind, the book presents a review of some of the most important open questions in astronomy. World experts examine topics ranging from extrasolar planets and star formation to supermassive black holes and the reionization of the universe. Special emphasis is placed on what astronomical observations should be carried out during the next few years to enable breakthroughs in our understanding of a complex and dynamic universe. In particular, the reviewers attempt to identify those topics to which the Hubble Space Telescope can uniquely contribute. The special emphasis on future research makes this book an essential resource for both professional researchers and graduate students in astronomy and astrophysics.